In the last fifty years, epidemiologists have gathered information related to cardiovascular mortality and they have compelling evidence to believe environmental factors particularly hard water is playing a significant role in the increased cardiovascular mortality rate. The world health organization observe hard water as water with high mineral content, the predominant metallic ions in hard water are calcium and magnesium but they are also small quantities of other polyvalent metallic ions such as iron, aluminum, manganese, barium, and zinc that play part in the hardness of the water. The simplest way to test hard water is by assessing the water ability and easiness to produce foam with soap, where hard water will require a considerable amount of soap to produce a lather. Water hardness is measured in the concentration of calcium carbonate which is expressed in milligram per liter, soft water has calcium carbonate below 60mg/l, where water with calcium carbonate between 60-120 mg/l is moderately hard and hard water has calcium carbonate of 120-180 mg/l. Human body needs sufficient mineral nutrients such as calcium and magnesium where deficiency can lead to health problems, for example deficiency in calcium is related to osteoporosis especially in pregnant women and old people because calcium is used to increase bone density, on the other hand, human body needs magnesium to produce enzymes that are used for energy metabolism and it deficiency has been associated with, cardiac arrhythmia and pre-eclampsia (gestation hypertension) which is normally treated with magnesium salt. The body can only utilize these minerals at a certain amount and consuming them in excesses such as in hard water or deficient supply can lead to health problems. This article therefore has gathered some essential information regarding the health effects of consuming excess minerals that are mainly found in hard water.
The concern of excess calcium consumption is mainly directed to people with kidney issues or individuals with a milk-alkali syndrome that is concurrent of hypercalcemia, alkalosis, and kidney issues but for the healthy population consumption of excess calcium is highly regulated by intestinal absorption and other elimination mechanisms and when it is absorbed in excess amount is excreted by the kidney without exposing the individual to significant health risks.
In the case of excess magnesium intake present in hard water has major health risks on individuals with renal insufficiency, also important to note is that increased intake of magnesium can lead to temporary bowel change which can lead to diarrhea but this is highly adaptable, but a people with no kidney problems rarely experience this change in the bowel, furthermore, taking water with excess magnesium and sulfate can cause laxative effects though there is no enough literature to support this claim, some epediomological studies have reported a negative association between cardiovascular mortality and consuming water magnesium, although the relationship has been termed as weak, it is related to well-known effects of magnesium to cardiovascular functions, however, the was no association between consuming hard water rich in magnesium and calcium and myocardial infarction. Those are some of the health concerns related to consumption of hard water.